Our lab studies the neuronal circuitry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and its connections with the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, which underlie higher-order cognitive functions. Pathological dysfunction of these areas have also been implicated in such diverse disorders as drug addiction, schizophrenia, anxiety, neuropathic pain, and Alzheimer’s disease. In order to understand the networks that underlie prefrontal cortical functions, we focus on how different populations of PFC neurons communicate in their local- and long-range networks. To this end, the projects in our lab utilize a combination of different techniques that include behavioral tests of cognitive flexibility, electrophysiological recordings in-vivo and in vitro, pharmacological manipulations, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. We also use many genetic tools, including viruses and transgenics, in order to characterize and manipulate specific neurons and connections.